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Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Iran and world powers reach a historic nuclear agreement in Vienna

Iranians celebrate historic nuclear deal
(Image: Independent)
Islamic Republic of Iran and six world’s major powers of the P5+1 group including US, Russia, United Kingdom of Great Britain, France, Germany and China have reached a historic agreement on Tuesday, 14 July, in Vienna, after the decades-long nuclear negotiations. This agreement has a great significance and could potentially change and reshape the world and the Middle East region. United Arab Emirates officials, for example, welcomed the deal and stated that it will definitely turn a “new page” for the Gulf region.

Under the Vienna Accord signed by Iran and six world’s major powers Iran will curb on its nuclear program, while the sanctions imposed against Iran by US, UN and EU since decades will be lifted.

It’s worth mentioning that Western countries suspected Iran that its nuclear research and development program was aimed rather at creating nuclear weapons than enrichment of uranium for nuclear fuel. Iran denied these allegations.

According to the terms of Iranian nuclear agreement reached in Vienna Iran will significantly cut the number of uranium centrifuges which are capable of uranium enrichment for nuclear fuel and nuclear bomb as well. The number of uranium centrifuges will reduce from 19000 to 5060 and maintain at this level for the next 10 years.

In addition to that all uranium enrichment will take place at the Natanz facility, while the mountain Fordo facility will retain additional 1044 centrifuges which will be used not for uranium enrichment.

Arak reactor is expected to be re-designed, so it won’t produce weapons-grade plutonium, an alternative to enriched uranium.

Iran also agreed on significant shortage of stockpiles of low-enriched uranium, while only enrichment at low purities will be allowed.

Vienna Accord also specifies limitations on specific research and development programs and activities of Iranian government, as they cannot lead to the accumulation of the enriched uranium.

World leaders participating in Vienna talks
(Image: BBC)
Iran will also apply to the Additional Protocol and allow closer inspection of its nuclear facilities and bases including potential military bases. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will send a high-tech surveillance equipment and team of experts for inspection of Iranian nuclear facilities. These experts will have access to these facilities during the following 25 years, according to the nuclear deal.

Iran will also comply with a roadmap introduced by IAEA and agreed during the Tuesday talks in Vienne to probe allegations to past efforts to develop nuclear weapons. The watchdog mission is expected to be complete by the mid-December.

As a result of Vienna nuclear talks UN Security Council has issued a resolution that terminated all the provisions of the previous resolutions regarding Iran, when IAEA will verify that Iran implemented all the above mentioned conditions and requirements.

US, UN and EU will also lift their sanctions against Iran including oil-export, financial system, arm sales etc. Restrictions on arms sales can be lifted within 5 years, after IAEA will give its broad and full conclusion of its inspection.

In addition to that Joint Commission of representatives of the six countries participating in the Vienna talks, Iran and UN will be formed to handle all the nuclear related issues and problems.

Iranian nuclear deal was already called a great historic deal of a great significance for the region and for the entire world, and this deal was the greatest diplomatic victory of US President Barak Obama and Iranian President Hassan Rouhani. Most of world powers and the neighboring countries as well welcomed this deal.

Though, Iranian nuclear deal was met with caution by Israel. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu declared that this deal was a “bad mistake of historic proportions”, while Israeli Foreign Minister stated that this deal was a “historic surrender”. Israel is systematically calling for the world powers to increase the pressure on Iran and claims Iran is working on developing nuclear weapons in order to eliminate the State of Israel.